How to carry on the flotation of Chalcopyrite
Flotation technology is widely used in the enrichment and separation of sulfide minerals, which can effectively utilize low-grade minerals. As chalcopyrite resources are increasingly "poor, thin and miscellaneous", single flotation process and traditional collector have been difficult to meet the requirements. In recent years, researchers have made extensive research on flotation technology and flotation collector, especially in the development and application of high selectivity and strong collector flotation reagents. Today, we mainly understand the flotation process of Chalcopyrite by simply understanding the mineral characteristics and flotation characteristics of chalcopyrite.
1. The mineral properties of chalcopyrite:
There are more than 280 kinds of copper minerals found in nature, mainly chalcopyrite, chalcopyrite and chalcopyrite, of which chalcopyrite accounts for about 70%. The crystal structure of chalcopyrite is a tetragonal system with a lattice energy of 17500 kJ, Cu atoms and Fe atoms at the top angle of tetrahedron. Each S atom is surrounded by 2 Cu atoms and Fe atoms, often dense or granular or granular. Chalcopyrite has good electronic conductivity, which can promote the action of the agent and mineral surface and enhance its floatability. The main types of copper ore in China are chalcopyrite, porphyry, and tan, and the low grade polymetallic refractory ores are more, the average grade of the ore is only 0.87%, and the rare precious metals such as molybdenum, gold, silver and so on are often accompanied by the difficulty of comprehensive recovery.
Two. Floatation characteristics of chalcopyrite:
Chalcopyrite is one of the minerals with good floatability induced by self induced floatability and collector in nature. It has good hydrophobicity in weak alkali and neutral environment, but it will form hydrogen bond with water in high alkali environment, thus reducing its floatability. Chalcopyrite exhibits natural floatability under oxidizing conditions. In the flotation process, the iron ball milling opportunity is used to produce a strong reduction environment, thus affecting the flotation performance. Then, the flotation performance can be restored by adding oxidant or contact with the air.
Three. The flotation process of chalcopyrite:
The flotation process of chalcopyrite varies according to the nature of ore and the requirements for the quality of the concentrate. At present, the technological processes of industrial application are mainly mixed flotation, full flotation, partial priority - mixed flotation and floatation and floatation.
1, mixed flotation process
The mixed flotation process first floatates chalcopyrite and other useful minerals in the ore, and then uses preferential flotation of copper to suppress other mineral processes and obtain qualified copper concentrate. This process is suitable for treating ore with low grade of raw ore and simple ore property. It has the advantages of saving grinding cost, flotation reagents and flotation equipment, but the process will have some shortcomings such as difficult separation of useful minerals and low grade of concentrate.
2, full priority flotation process
There are two main floatation processes in chalcopyrite. One is to suppress pyrite and other associated minerals by adding lime and other inhibitors. Although it can achieve a good flotation effect, a large amount of lime is usually consumed, and the grade of copper concentrate and rare precious gold, such as copper and associated Au, Ag, Mo, and so on, are also reduced. The recovery rate of the genus. Another way is to use chalcopyrite with highly efficient selectivity to flotation chalcopyrite under neutral to weakly alkaline conditions. The full priority flotation process is suitable for the ore with simple ingredients, few recyclable minerals, large difference in flotation between useful minerals, or a mineral that can be well suppressed with chalcopyrite and has no obvious influence on the flotation of chalcopyrite.
3, partial priority - mixed flotation process
The process flow of partial priority mixed flotation process is to floatate the copper ore which is easily floatation first, then mixed flotation of copper and other useful minerals, then the flotation separation of mixed concentrate is carried out, and the copper concentrate is treated or treated separately according to the actual conditions. This process is suitable for the treatment of chalcopyrite, which is easily floatation in the ore. It can be first floatation in the case of not very high grinding fineness to achieve rapid collection and early recovery of copper. It is difficult to use the collector and other minerals in the case of regrinding or no longer grinding. Ore. The process can reduce the use of drugs, eliminate the influence of the excess agent on the separation flotation, and improve the flotation index. The main disadvantage is that more flotation equipment is needed.
4, floatation process with equal FLOATABILITY
The floatability process is suitable for the treatment of polymetallic ores, and there is a kind of mineral floatability in the ore, and the other ores can be divided into two parts, which are easy flotation and difficult flotation. Flotation of flotation is usually done without adding regulators, inhibitors and activators to maintain the natural floatability of minerals. The floatability of minerals can be floated naturally without the influence of the inhibitors, and it also avoids the action of activators to float the useful minerals, which leads to the need to consume a large number of chemicals and equipment for the separation of minerals. The process can generally get good technical indicators, and can be used less medicament to simplify flotation equipment.
In the actual production process, the selection of flotation process is more flexible and often affected by the flotation performance of the agent. According to the nature of the ore and the production experience, the enterprise will adopt the technological process suitable for its own development. With the development of chalcopyrite, the development of poor, fine and mixed, and associated with many kinds of metals, considering the recovery of useful elements, a single flotation process is difficult to obtain a satisfactory index. In general, a combination of multiple flotation processes can be used to obtain a separate qualified concentrate.